AKHENATEN/MOSES — Praenomen: Nefer-kheperu-Rê
Born at Tell Habwe-Avaris-Zarwe-Sile (Pi-Rammsses) 1394 BCE, into the great house of Tuthmosis as Amenhotep IV, affectionately known at Aminadab, later changed his name to Akhenaten.
Father: Amenhotep III (Solomon)
Mother: Tiye (Daughter of Joseph/Yuja and Tjuya)
Joseph went to Egypt not in the early 18th century BC but in the early 15 century BC. There he was appointed Chief Minister to Tuthmosis IV (ruled c. 1413-1405 BC). To the Egyptians, however, Joseph the Vizier was known as Yuya, and his story is particularly revealing not just in relation to the Biblical account of Joseph but also in respect of Moses. The Cairo-born historian and linguist Ahmed Osman has made an in-depth study of these personalities in their contemporary Egyptian environment, and his findings are of great significance.
When Pharaoh Tuthmosis died, his son married his sibling sister Sitamun (as was the Pharaonic tradition) so that he could inherit the throne as Pharaoh Amenhotep III. Shortly afterwards he also married Tiye, daughter of the Chief Minister (Joseph/Yuya). It was decreed, however, that no son born to Tiye could inherit the throne. Because of the overall length of her father Joseph’s governorship there was a general fear that the Israelites were gaining too much power in Egypt. So when Tiye became pregnant, the edict was given that her child should be killed at birth if a son. Tiye’s Jewish relatives lived at Goshen, and she herself owned a summer palace a little upstream at Zarw, where she went to have her baby. She did indeed bear a son – but royal midwives conspired with Tiye to float the child downstream in a reed basket to the house of her father’s half-brother Levi.The boy, Aminadab, was duly educated in the eastern delta country by the Egyptian priests of Ra. In teenage years he went to live at Thebes. By that time, his mother had acquired more influence than the senior queen, Sitamun, who had never borne a son and heir to the Pharaoh, only a daughter who was called Nefertiti.
Akhenaten and Nefertiti had six daughters and a son, Tutankhaten. Pharaoh Akhenaten closed all the temples of the Egyptian gods and built new temples to Aten. He also ran a household that was distinctly domestic — quite different from the kingly norm in ancient Egypt. On many fronts he became unpopular — particularly with the priests of the former national deity Amun (or Amen) and of the sun-god Ra (or Re). Plots against his life proliferated. Loud were the threats of armed insurrection if he did not allow the traditional gods to be worshipped alongside the faceless Aten. But Akhenaten refused, and was eventually forced to abdicate.
Akhenaten, banished from Egypt, fled with some retainers to the remote safety of Sinai, taking with him his royal sceptre topped with a brass serpent. To his supporters he remained very much the rightful monarch, the heir to the throne from which he had been ousted, and he was still regarded by them as the Mose, Meses or Mosis (heir/born of) — as in Tuthmosis (born of Tuth) and Rameses (fashioned of Ra).
- Unlike military prototype in the 18th Dynasty Pharaoh, despite attempts to involve in war.
- Poet – Psalm 104 / Hymn to Aten.
- Drew teachings from contemplation of both nature and life; intuition and rationalism.
- Destroyed ancient symbolism; supplanted inner for outer.
- As devotees of Aten, he and Nefertiti’s main preoccupation was that of a fanatical obsession with religion.
FREUD 1937 – IMAGIO –
The Jewish creed says: Schema Yisrael Adonai Elohenu Adonai; Echod: (Hear O Israel, the lord thy God is one God.) As the Hebrew letter “d” is transliteration of the Egyptian letter “t” and “e” becomes “o”, Freud explains that the sentence becomes: “Hear O Israel, our God Aten is the only God.
Set out to show that Oedipus of the classic Greek myth had an Egyptian historical origin and that Akhenaten was the Oedipus King who married his own mother, Queen Tiye. In light of this, scholars scrambled to distance any evident connections, suggesting Moses and Akhenaten to be one and the same person.
The second son of Amenhotep III and Queen Tiye; elder brother, Tuthmosis, disappeared mysteriously, and in view of the threats made against Moses, it is probable that the disappearance of Tuthmosis was not of natural causes. The reason for the king’s hostility towards the young princes was the fact that Tiye, their mother was not the legitimate heiress. Furthermore, as she herself was of mixed Egyptian-Israelite blood, her children would not, by Egyptian custom, be regarded as heirs to the throne. This is exactly the light in which the Amunite priests and nobles of Egypt, the watch dogs of old traditions, regarded Akhenaten. It was not he who first rejected the position as the son of Amun: it was they, the Amunists, who refused to accept him as legitimate heir to the throne. But it was also Akhenaten who refused his own son, Tutankhamen’s extended olive branch, reconciling the differences between the opposing views, which caused Tutankhamen’s life to be extinguished by the wicked priest, Phanesey. At the same time, those of Moses’ followers who did not follow him to Amarna were, according to Manetho, set to harsh work in the stone quarries.
Moses monotheistic ideology crystalized further while in Amarna. Upon becoming sole ruler following the death of his father, Amenhotep III, after the end of his year 38 – year 12 of Moses – he shut down the temples of the ancient gods of Egypt, cut of all financial support and sent the priesthood packing. So much bitterness and resentment followed that, in his year 15, Moses was forced to install his brother, Semenkhkare (Aaron), as his co-regent at Thebes, a delay for the eventual showdown. In his year 17 Moses was warned by his uncle, Aye, the second son of Joseph (Yuja), of a plot against his life; he abdicated and fled to Sinai, taking with him his bronze serpent. Semenkhkare did not long survive, Moses’ departure being replaced by Moses’ son, the boy king Tutankhamen, who restored the old gods, but attempted a compromise by allowing the Aten to be worshipped alongside them.
Tutankhamen, having ruled 9-10 years, was succeeded by Aye, his great-uncle, who ruled for four years before the army leader, Horemheb, brought the Amarna era to an end.
The bitterness which divided the country at the time is indicated by the actions of Horemheb and the Ramesside kings who followed. The names of the Amarna kings were excised from the kings lists and monuments in a studied campaign to try to remove all trace of them from Egypt’s memory. In addition, the Israelites were put to harsh work building the treasure cities of Pithom and Ramses.
On the death of Horemheb, there was no legitimate 18th Dynasty heir. Ramses, Horemheb’s elderly vizier, took power as Ramses I, first of the 19th Dynasty. Hearing of Horemheb’s death, Moses returned from the Sinai to challenge Ramses’ right to the throne. With his scepter of authority the assembled Wise-men decide in favor of Moses, but Ramses controlled the army, which was the decisive factor. Moses establishing a following in Zarw, persuaded Ramses I to allow him and the Israelites to leave the country.
Akhenaten, curiously, allowed himself to be represented as “Osiris” in a large number of colossal statues placed in massive Aten temples built at Karnak during his early reign. Since it was normally a dead king displayed in this Osiride form; Akhenaten on being a ‘believer’ in the Osiris symbology of the ‘underworld’, seems strange.
EXTERNALIZATION-EXCHANGE OF THE INNER HIDDEN FOR THE OUTER SYMBOL –
The king was regarded as the physical son of Amun. Since Tiye was not the heiress when she and Amenhotep III were married, she could not be regarded as the consort of Amun and her son, Akhenaten, could not be considered the physical son of Amun. A similar situation faced an earlier Pharaoh, Tuthmosis III (King David), whose mother, Isis, was not the heiress when she married. On that occasion an adoption ritual took place at Karnak where the ‘image’ of Amun, carried by the priest, chose Tuthmosis III as Amun’s son. Once Akhenaten had been rejected by the priests, he in turn rejected Amun, chose Aten as his father, eventually establishing Aten as the only legitimate God of whom Akhenaten was the son. In this Moses externalized the hidden inner “Amun”, projecting it out onto the outer sun-disk presented to the sensory organs as Aten; the eternal inner animating fire being supplanted by the false temporal fire of the sun-disk. The roles have been reversed, the outer fire, metaphor and symbol for that which is hidden has now become the god, any notion of Maat has been cast aside.
Moses, Constantine and the Atenists